Home
Welcome

Please select your city:


Username
Password
Remember
Click here to register
Forgot Password?
     
Move to Turkey
Relocation Companies
Where To Stay
Hotels, Aparts, Suites
Learn Turkish
Instructors, Courses

Member interviews
What about yours?
Lisa from Kadıköy
Sarah from Sisli
Claudia from Fenerbahce
Nilgün from Suadiye
Aaron from Çekmeköy

From Members' Pen
Members' columns
Be a Correspondent
A Weekend Escape to Edirne
Siirt in Istanbul
Lemon Cheesecake
A Visit to Aya Yorgi and Heybeliada
Angelique´s Latest Trips
Advertisement Advertise here/Buraya reklam verin

Forums
Moving to Turkey
Relocation
Law & Legal
Health
Money affairs
Vehicles (Cars, boats, motocycles etc)
Communications, electronics, media
Children / Les enfants
Pets
Turkish Language
Tourism / Travel / Sightseeing
Educational Topics


e-coupons

Free newsletter

Your Name

Your Email

We will send regular newsletters to our members who have signed up for receiving it during the registration. In 'mymerhaba' newsletter, our editorial staff provides updates, with regard to any information related to places worth visiting, viewing, or otherwise worth knowing, for those who care to know more....

Vaccines

Photo: Adil Gur
by Akif Demirel, DVM

What is a vaccine?
The word 'vaccine' comes from the discovery of an English country doctor, Dr. Edward Jenner. Dr. Jenner discovered that people given a preparation ('vaccine') of material from the common cattle disease, cowpox (or 'vaccinia'), developed only a mild skin infection, but when those 'vaccinated' individuals were exposed to the deadly smallpox virus (a virus closely related to cowpox) they remained healthy. They were 'immune'. More than one hundred years after Jenner's findings, the great French scientist Louis Pasteur and his colleagues found that they could protect animals and people against a variety of diseases including rabies by administering injections of the infectious microorganism in an altered form. The two main alterations of these microorganisms were "inactivated vaccines" (using killed virus) or "attenuated vaccines" (using still living virus but changed into a harmless form).

What is 'immunity'?
Immunity is a complex series of defense mechanisms by which an animal is able to resist an infection or, minimally, resist disease and the harmful consequences of the infection. The main components of these defenses are the white blood cells, especially lymphocytes and their chemical products, antibodies and cytokines such as interferon. All infectious disease organisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, etc.) have specific components called 'antigens'. These antigens cause lymphocytes to respond in a specific way such that each antigen stimulates the production of a mirror-image 'antibody' as well as non-antibody responses called 'cellular immunity'. Immunity has memory, so that a subsequent exposure to the same antigen results in a much more rapid response. This rapid "boost" of immunity usually stops the new infection before it can cause illness. The animal is "immune". Such immune memory can fade with time, sometimes quite rapidly. Immunity is not absolute. Immunity can sometimes be overcome when there is an overwhelming exposure to a high dose of a virulent (particularly harmful) strain of the microorganism or when the animal is unduly stressed or its immune system is otherwise depressed (immuno-suppression) by other infections or certain drugs.

What is a modified-live vaccine?
In a modified-live or live-attenuated vaccine the causative organism (virus, bacterium, etc.) has been altered so that it is no longer harmful ('virulent') but upon injection or other administration it will stimulate protective immunity.

What is a killed vaccine?
The organism has been killed ('inactivated') to render it harmless. Killed vaccines often need a helper or 'adjuvant' included in the vaccine to stimulate a longer-lasting immune response.

Which is better: a live or killed vaccine?
Both have advantages and disadvantages. Your veterinarian takes many circumstances into account in making the choice.

Why are vaccines administered by injection?
Some vaccines are given 'locally', for example into the nose, but most require injection so that the maximum take-up of vaccine by the white cells and the immune system is achieved. Some vaccines are injected subcutaneous (under-the-skin), others into the muscles (intramuscular). Injections look easy but there are a number of precautions a veterinarian is taking.

Which vaccines are needed in dogs?
Depending on your locality some infections may be more or less likely. Your veterinarian will assess the relative risks based on your circumstances and advise you accordingly. The range of vaccines available includes: rabies, distemper, adenovirus/ infectious canine hepatitis, parvovirus, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, coronavirus, Lyme disease, and Bordetella bronchiseptica (see Kennel Cough). For details on these diseases see the specific topic. These vaccines are often available in combinations given in one dose. These combination vaccines are convenient and avoid extra 'needles' but sometimes separation of vaccines is advisable. Your veterinarian will advise you based on your dog's specific requirements.

What is maternal immunity?
Newborn animals have not yet had a chance to make their own immunity so they need protection against infections present in their environment. They receive this immunity from their mother, partly across the placenta while in the uterus with most of the maternal antibody transferred to them in the first milk or colostrum. Maternal immunity is only temporary. It declines steadily over the first few weeks of life and is largely gone by 12 weeks. The rate of decline is variable depending on many factors.

Why is more than one dose of vaccine given to pups?
There are two reasons. First, without complicated testing it is impossible to know when a pup has lost the immunity it gets from its mother (maternal immunity). An early decline in a puppy's maternal antibody can leave it susceptible to infection at a very young age but a strong maternal immunity can actually interfere with early vaccination (see Vaccination Failure). Second, particularly with killed vaccines, the first dose is a 'priming' dose, and the second dose is needed to boost the response to a higher, longer-lasting level of immunity.

Why annual revaccinations?
In most properly vaccinated dogs, the immunity should last more than a year, and often several years. However, immunity does decline with time and this decline rate varies with individuals. To maintain the best immunity in a reasonable way, annual revaccinations have proven very successful. Because improvements are continuously made in the vaccines we use, some do not need to be given so often, depending on individual circumstances of the pet. Your veterinarian will discuss the need and frequency of boosters for your dog.

How long does it take for a vaccine to produce immunity?
Within a few hours of vaccination the earliest phases of the immune response are being stimulated. It usually requires 10 to 14 days before a reasonable level of protection is established. Killed vaccines may not provide adequate protection until after the second dose. Also in young puppies maternal antibody may hinder protection until later in the vaccine series. Therefore it is advisable to keep a recently vaccinated pup away from dogs or pups of unknown vaccination history until it has finished its vaccination course.

What happens if my dog is sick when vaccinated?
The veterinary check-up prior to vaccination and sometimes blood tests pre-vaccination help prevent this situation. In most cases it would not have disastrous consequences, but it is important that an animal is healthy when vaccinated, to ensure proper development of immunity.

Will vaccination make my dog sick?
It is not unusual to detect some lethargy in the day or so after vaccination. In the case of killed vaccines containing an adjuvant, some thickening or lump formation may occur at the vaccination site. If this is painful or persists for more than a week or so with no decrease in size, consult your veterinarian. A few dogs will develop more severe reactions that are forms of hypersensitivity (allergy). These will usually occur within minutes but may be delayed for a few hours. The dog may have difficulty breathing, salivate, vomit, and have diarrhea. In these situations consult your veterinarian immediately.

Do vaccines provide 100% protection?
Vaccines have been highly successful in protecting the majority of dogs against diseases such as distemper that were once common but now rare, but there are situations in which the immunity conferred by a vaccine may be overcome and a vaccinated dog may still develop disease. In such cases the disease is generally milder than it would have been had the dog not been vaccinated. Some causes for apparent 'vaccine failure' are:

Maternally derived antibodies. As mentioned above, when a puppy is born and after it suckles its mother, it acquires a proportion of any antibodies that the mother has. So a well-vaccinated female will confer antibodies to the diseases she has been vaccinated against and any others she has acquired naturally to her puppies. Such antibodies protect the pup against those diseases for the first 2 or 3 months of its life (the most critical period). However during this same period the maternally derived antibodies can block the effects of vaccination of the pup. This blocking effect decreases as the maternal antibody gradually disappears over those 2 to 3 months. A point in time is reached when vaccination can be successfully given. Unfortunately this point varies between pups, mainly because the amount of maternal antibodies that each pup receives is variable. This is part of the reason that two vaccinations are usually given, two to four weeks apart, in the puppy vaccination program. Maternal antibody interference has been a particular problem with canine parvovirus vaccination.
Incomplete immune response. There is variation between dogs in their immune system. Some respond less well to vaccination, so immunity may be incomplete or shorter-lived than normal. Certain breeds and genetic lines have a tendency for such problems.
Declining immunity. Without booster vaccinations, or without natural boosting of immunity by sporadic exposure to the infectious agent in nature, immunity to the specific organism declines over time, particularly in older age. There may come a time when if there is a particularly heavy dose of the organism from the environment the declining immunity may be insufficient and overwhelmed, disease resulting.
Immune suppression. Certain infections and some drugs, such as anti-cancer drugs, may cause a suppression of the immune system so that an otherwise well-vaccinated dog becomes susceptible to infection and disease if exposed.
??New strains of organism. Some infectious agents exist in different strains or new strains evolve, that are not directly covered by the vaccines given. There may be some 'cross-protection' but it may not be complete.

The above are not the only reasons for vaccination 'failure' but they are the most likely explanations. If you feel your dog has contracted an infection for which it has been vaccinated then let your veterinarian know so tests can be undertaken to try and establish why vaccination has failed to be protective.




Vaccines
Airline Travel With Your Cat
Bone Diseases of Growing Dogs
Post-Vaccination Sarcoma in Cats
Necrosis of the Femoral Head
Birsen's Horizons
Fred's Trip Logs
Bahar's Views on...
Business World
From Members' Pen
Interviews with Members
Moms & Kids Corner
Pets with Dr. Demirel
The archives of The Guide
The Archives of Turkishtime
Teen's world

Latest comments about this article

 By lucicik  11.5.2004

sorry for the mobile, should be 0532 292 5088

 By lucicik  11.5.2004

tel.2126639142 or mobile 0532029205088. email:[email protected] Address: İstanbul Animal Hospital Eceler Sokak 16/1, Florya/İstanbul

 By Icaru  11.5.2004

I´m so glad to see this article as I was trying to find a vet in Istanbul who speaks English. But what is the address or phone number of Dr. Demirel? Also, are all booster vaccines (DHLP, bordatella, etc) available in Turkey?

Would you like to add your comment about this article? Click here!

External Links:

Editor's Picks

Şile On the Asian shoreline of Bosphorus, just 70 km away from the city center, Şile’s widespread sandy beaches. more...

Summer and Child Health Pediatrician Beril Bayrak Bulucu’s article is titled “Summer and Child Health”. more...

Home Sweet Home Wondering how to change a house into “Home sweet home”? Here are some clues to help you settle in a foreign town. more...

Burhan Doğançay Burhan Dogançay is primarily known for a body of work that grew out of his fascination with urban walls. more...

Piyaz – Haricoat bean salad Zeyda would like to share with you her Haricot Bean Salad recipe. more...

What Gift to Take When… In summer number of wedding, engagement and circumcision ceremonies increase. What gift to take when... more...


Latest Articles
Puppet Festival in Ankara
Filmekimi 2018
Istanbul Design Biennial
Contemporary Istanbul
Istanbul Clarinet Festival
Bilkent Brass Festival
Ayvalık Choral Festival
25th Aspendos Festival
Bodrum Jazz Festival 2018
Summer Festival at Bachçe






 

Pets with Dr. Demirel
Vaccines
Airline Travel With Your Cat
Bone Diseases of Growing Dogs
Post-Vaccination Sarcoma in Cats
Necrosis of the Femoral Head

Focus On
Birsen's Horizons
Fred's Trip Logs
Bahar's Views on...
Business World
From Members' Pen
Interviews with Members
Moms & Kids Corner
Pets with Dr. Demirel
The archives of The Guide
The Archives of Turkishtime
Teen's world




Rhythm of Town

Events calendar
Valentine's Day
Istanbul Live
This Weekend in Istanbul
Ankara Live
This Weekend in Ankara
Social Clubs in Ankara
Restaurants and Cafes in Istanbul
Restaurants and Cafes in Ankara
Sightseeing in Istanbul
Sightseeing in Ankara
Various Discoveries
Best of...
Art and Culture in Istanbul
Art & Culture in Ankara
For Kids - Istanbul
For Kids - Ankara
Hobbies Istanbul
Hobbies Ankara
Sports
Biletix System
Films on cnbc-e


Turkeywide

Sustainable Living Film Festival
!f Istanbul Film Festival
25th Aspendos Festival
International Izmir Festival
Gümüşlük Festival
Bodrum Music Festival
Bodrum Jazz Festival 2018
Ayvalık Choral Festival
Filmekimi 2018
Turkish Ruins
Mount Ararat Trek
Seeing the Truth
XJAZZ Festival
Izmir European Jazz Festival
Filmmor 2017
The Flying Broom Festival
Gümüşlük Festival
Bodrum Music Festival
Bodrum Jazz Festival
Filmekimi 2017
In Other Cities
Baksı Museum
It´s Time to Take Pictures!!
Photo of the Month
Inside Out in Istanbul
Sand Sculpture Festival
Mandatory Health Insurance for Expats
Impossible Fairies - Out Now
Istanbul Contemporary Cuisine
Changes on Work Permit
New Year
Turkey's TOP 10s
Summer-house
Anzac Day
İzmir Wild Life Park
Antalya State Opera and Ballet - March
Izmir State Opera and Ballet - March
Registration of Canadians Abroad
News From The Expat Harem
Latest Amendments in Land Registry Law


Events Calendar

<< Oct 2018 >>
Su
Mo
Tu
We
Th
Fr
Sa
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Shopping
Shopping in Istanbul
Shopping in Ankara
Product showcase
Shopping corner

Weather

Istanbul

Ankara



Advertising/Reklam
Add "mymerhaba" to my favorites | make "mymerhaba" my homepage
About "mymerhaba"
| Thanks to | Contact Us | Links | FAQ
copyright "mymerhaba" All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Service
This site is best viewed with Internet Explorer 5 or greater with minimum 800*600 resolution

powered by IDserv
Website Security Test